The Wheel of the Year is an annual cycle of seasonal festivals, observed by Wiccans and many modern pagans, consisting of the year’s chief solar events (solstices and equinoxes) and the midpoints between them. While names for each festival vary among diverse pagan traditions, syncretic treatments often refer to the four solar events as “quarter days”, with the four midpoint events as “cross-quarter days”.
Observing the cycle of the seasons has been important to many people, both ancient and modern. Contemporary Pagan festivals that rely on the Wheel are based to varying degrees on folk traditions, regardless of actual historical pagan practices. Among Wiccans, each festival is also referred to as a sabbat (/ˈsæbət/), based on Gerald Gardner’s view that the term was passed down from the Middle Ages, when the terminology for Jewish Shabbat was commingled with that of other heretical celebrations. Contemporary conceptions of the Wheel of the Year calendar were largely influenced by mid-20th century British paganism.
- Ostara or Spring Equinox
- Midsummer or Summer Solstice
- Mabon or Autumn Equinox
- Yule or Winter Solstice